Also, the given period saw the expansion of economic and cultural links with China, India, and Iran. In the 6th century, various tribes and peoples of Altai, the area of Seven Rivers, and Central Asia joined together in the so-called Turkic khanate. In the early 7th century, the khanate broke up into Western and Eastern parts.
The increase in the economy, literary craft, and construction in the agricultural oases of Central Asia mark the 6th and 7th centuries. The silkworm breeding, brought from China in the 5th century, and local weaving is revealed to have prospered in Ferghana.
The towns of Samarkand, Bukhara, Paykend, Termez, and a number of others in Khorezm and Chach are thought to have turned into centers of international trade. The prospecting of deposits and extraction of gold, silver, iron ore, and rock salt expanded in some regions in the area between the two rivers in Central Asia : the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya. The cotton growing, gardening, and viticulture was widely practiced in agricultural areas of the khanate. The grapes and wines of Ferghana were especially famous for their unique taste and preservation up to 10 years, and longer.
The prevailing religions of farmers were Zoroastrianism and Buddhism. Also, there were communities of Jews, Manicheans, and Nestorian Christians in the big cities. The majority of the populations both wrote and spoke Khorezm and Sogdian languages. The remains of various writings, including those on religious matters - Buddhist, Manichean, and Christian, are in the Sogdian language and alphabet, and witness to the cultural links maintained with India, Iran, and Syria.
The late 7th century saw the disintegration of the Western Turkic khanate into small city-states. In the 7th and early 8th centuries the Arabs conquered Central Asia. The political split and civil war that reigned in Central Asia at that time in one way or another made it easier for the Arab conquest. The early 8th century saw the all-out invasion of the region led by the Arab commander and Governor General of Khorasan, Kutaiba ibn Muslim (705 - 715). Taking advantage of the internal split, Kutaiba was quick to capture Tokhariston, and the area on the right bank of the Amu Darya.
In 705, Arabs fortified their positions in Chaganian, and moved further north - the area between the two rivers. In 723 the rulers of Ferghana, Chach, Nasaf, and the Western Turkic khanate set out against the Arab invaders by pushing them back to Samarkand.
The Sogdian revolt lasted for 10 years with participation of many of the local people. Thus, the entire region was engulfed with an anti-Arab march. Abrave man of Central Asia, Mukanna, led one such rigorous revolt against the Arab rule. His movement has been named as "men in white". The "men in white" not only fought against the Arab rule in the area, but also - the one by local aristocracy, who used to side with the aggressors. The war for freedom lasted for more than 10 years and shook the powerful Arab caliphate. It is a vivid example of the fight for freedom by the people of Central Asia against invaders.
In the early 9th century the rule of the Arab caliphate on its territories began to gradually diminish. Thereafter, sovereign states started to emerge in the region, led by local dynasties. In the late 9th century, the Samanid dynasty (819 - 999) gained full independence from the Arab caliphs, and spread its own rule from the northern slope of the Tian Shan to Gindukush and the Syr Darya steppes to the Persian Gulf.
The cities of Central Asia - large trade and cultural centers of their time - rose and prospered. The mosques and madrasah (educational institutions) were erected in many places such as Bukhara, Balkh, Samarkand, Termez, and others. Also, these cities became scientific centers, where the renowned scholars of the Orient such as Dakyky, Beruny, Avicenna, Faraby, and others lived and researched.
1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 11 12